Traffic education is defined here as any kind of formal or informal education that is aimed at learning and improving the knowledge, insight, skills and attitudes that are necessary for safe traffic participation, including the wish to safely participate in traffic.
Public service advertising (PSA) on road safety does not seem very effective on its own. PSA campaigns mainly influence behaviour when they are combined with police enforcement and rewarding or other actions. This does not mean that PSA campaigns should not be undertaken. Public service advertising can increase knowledge and lead to attitude change and can strengthen support for effective but unpopular measures. A PSA campaign is more effective as the target group is more committed to the issue. Mass media campaigns are usually less effective than local, individual programmes.
In the Netherlands, licence acquisition courses for category B (passenger cars) are concluded by a theoretical and a practical test. Driving lessons are not obligatory, but without them passing the practical test is virtually impossible. For practical reasons, the effectiveness of drivings tests and driver training is hard to assess in a scientific way. A few studies of the effectiveness of theory tests and practical driving tests are indeed available. These do, however, not show a marked relation between crash risk and driving test performance or driver training.