What do we mean by light electric vehicles (LEVs)?

Answer

The term LEV refers to a light, electrically powered vehicle used to travel relatively short distances. Which vehicles are covered by this term varies among publications and countries. This fact sheet uses the categorisation proposed by the ministry of Infrastructure and Water Management for the future LEV authorisation framework [1][i]. See Table 1 for an overview of the proposed LEV categories not covered by a European regulation. (Electric) mopeds/light mopeds and speed pedelecs, for example, are vehicles covered by European regulation EU 168/2013.

Category

Maximum constructionspeed

Maximum authorised mass[ii]

Maximum power

Maximum dimensions l x w x h (m)

Number of people

1a. e-(cargo)bike with pedal assistance < 55 kg

≤ 25 km/h

200 kg

250 watts

2 wheels:
3 x 0.75 x 2

> 2 wheels:
3 x 1 x 2

1 operator, max. 2 passengers

1b. all LEVs other than 1a. < 55 kg

For example: e-scooter, Segway

≤ 25 km/h

140 kg

TBD

2 x 0.75 x 1.5 

1 operator

2a. Goods transport >55 kg

For example: eCargo bike for goods transport

≤ 25 km/uur

556 kg

TBD

3 x 1 x 2

1 operator

2b. Passenger traffic > 55 kg

For example: BSO-bus (electric child carrier)

≤ 25 km/uur

556 kg

TBD

3 x 1 x 2

1 operator, max. 8 passengers

Table 1. Proposed LEV categories for the future authorisation framework.

The two main categories proposed are: electrically powered vehicles with a maximum mass in running order (mass of the vehicle including batteries without load) of 55 kilograms (category 1) and electrically powered vehicles with a mass in running order of more than 55 kilograms (category 2). Category 1 is subdivided into 1a and 1b. Category 1a includes vehicles with pedal assistance, such as electric (cargo) bikes. Category 1b includes vehicles without pedal assistance, such as an electric scooter and a Segway. Such vehicles are also called Personal Light Electric Vehicles (PLEVs). Category 2 includes electrically powered vehicles with an authorised maximum mass (total mass of the vehicle in running order, including the operator and possible goods or passengers) of 556 kg, for transporting goods or several passengers, such as the BSO-bus (a Dutch electric child carrier used for out-of-school transport) and large eCargo bikes. All LEVs have a maximum construction speed of 25 km/h. The maximum power of LEVs with pedal assistance (electric (cargo) bikes) is 250 watts. The maximum power of LEVs without pedal assistance (for example e-scooters and BSO-busses) is still to be determined.

Disability vehicles and mobility scooters will not be included in the LEV authorisation framework and are therefore not discussed in this fact sheet. See: fact sheet Mobility scooters, enclosed disability vehicles and microcars..


[i] In the Netherlands, the definition and categorisation of LEVs is part of the future LEV authorisation framework. The framework contents are still under development, which may yet change the categorisation.

[ii] The total mass of the vehicle in running order, the operator and possible goods or passengers.

Part of factsheet

Light electric vehicles (LEVs)

A light electric vehicle (LEV) is a light, electrically powered vehicle to travel relatively short distances. Most electric vehicles cannot be used Meer