The CEDR Transnational Research Programme Call 2015 was developed by CEDR Working Group Innovation and funded by the CEDR members from Germany, Netherlands, Finland, Ireland and Sweden. The aim of this research programme is to advance the understanding of the motives of transport users by national road authorities, the needs of users for choosing different transport modes, and the impacts of appropriate incentives for a modal shift.
Two projects were funded:
- ISAAC - Stimulating safe walking and cycling within a multimodal transport environment - which focused on the consideration of vulnerable road users in a multimodal context
- STTRIDE - Smarter Travel Technology Review for Investment Decisions - which investigated the impact of new technologies on modal choice
As the populations of large cities continue to grow, there are major challenges relating to supporting a change from car use to the use of public transport, walking and cycling. One of the main challenges is the use of major road links into large cities and efforts to curb the increase in road traffic.
The focus of ISAAC is on vulnerable road users - pedestrians, cyclists, riders of powered two-wheelers - as they move from point A to B and the travel chain they choose in a multimodal context. In order to encourage more sustainable modes of mobility the preferred modes require that the urban structure be designed so that walking and cycling trips are convenient, pleasant and safe.
ISAAC developed a web-based tool (Pedbikeplanner) for policy makers in large cities where they can find evidence-based information about measures that can contribute to modal shift from car to walking and cycling without compromising safety. This web-based tool is hosted by TOI and will be maintained until July 2021 so that its use and benefits can be evaluated. A major conclusion of a survey carried out within ISAAC study is that walking and cycling should not be treated as one group of "active transportation". Both have their own motivations and barriers, and therefore need to be addressed by policy makers as well as researchers separately.
It appeared that the perceptions of Personal e-Transporters are still relatively unfavourable, especially in terms of safety and cost. Nevertheless, in several cities the percentage of respondents that use them as a transport mode at least monthly can be up to 10%, implying that they should not be considered as a marginal phenomenon in traffic.
The final event provided an opportunity to discuss priorities for future actions and research: these include:
- Apply the "External costs of mobility report" which gives economic arguments for the importance and impact of modal shift. These arguments are vital for decision making on different levels (EU, national and Local).
- Research is required for evidence-based road safety promotion to enhance a safe modal shift from motorized traffic to walking and cycling in urban environments. Include evaluation of the option for speed reduction in cities and automatic speed adaptation in cars.
- Evaluate if the increased interest in sustainable mobility (SUMP) will help to speed up the modal shift to walking and cycling in cities.
- Evaluate if mobility as a service, will help cities to reduce the increased traffic flow.
- The current space that cars use in cities needs to be reconsidered in order to enhance the modal shift to other modalities (like walking and cycling).
- Monitor the mobility developments in different cities. Data should be made available and shared in order to learn from experiences. Define a limited basic dataset for all cities providing a possibility for benchmarking.
Many emerging technologies are having a significant impact on preferred mode of transport. Once a new technology has appeared, it can also be difficult to assess the impact it has had. As a result, there is a knowledge gap how to support, respond or invest in the right technologies to deliver their preferred outcomes.
STTRIDE addresses how best to use technological advances to deliver positive modal shift. The project reviewed a number of potential technologies identified from an evidence review and used them as examples to demonstrate a set of evaluation techniques. These included PESTLE, foresight analysis and logic mapping of outcomes and impacts. The experience gained from trailing these methods with the example technologies was then used to develop a toolkit of evaluation guidance for more general application to technology-based interventions.
A joint final event for STTRIDE and ISAAC was held on 8-9 May 2019 in Brussels. This was coordinated by the POLIS network alongside a POLIS event so that delegates could choose to attend the STTRIDE and ISAAC event as part of a two-day programme on integrated transport, featuring new mobility options such as e-scooters.
The final event provided an opportunity to discuss the principles of STTRIDE with a range of potential users and stakeholders. Workshops were held, one focusing on positive and negative impacts presented by new technological developments, the second on the practical implications of conducting trials and evaluations, including research methods. The issues discussed show that a wide range of potential impacts needs to be considered beyond simply changes in travel behaviour. Evaluation has to consider how people use a service, their perceptions of it and a number of social implications, in particular for non-users who may become socially excluded or exposed to risk.
Priorities for future research have been recommended, focused on particular themes identified in the final project event. These include:
- Data-sharing and co-operation: how can transport authorities best work with new mobility service providers to deliver the benefits of shared data, taking account of concerns such as with privacy and commercial interests.
- Social impacts: how can impacts on employment conditions or social exclusion be identified and mitigated in new mobility services.
- Safety performance - how can the safety of different modes be measured and compared meaningfully (appropriate performance indicators), including perceived safety and the barrier it can present to modal shift.