Identification and safety effects of road user related measures

Deliverable 4.2 of the H2020 project SafetyCube
Theofilatos, A.; Aigner-Breuss, E.; Kaiser, S.; Alfonsi, R.; Braun, E.; Eichhorn, A.; Pilgerstorfer, M.; Alfonsi, R.; Hay, M.; Etienne, V.; Paire-Ficout, L.; Goldenbeld, C.; Schagen, I. van; et al.

Safety CaUsation, Benefits and Efficiency (SafetyCube) is a European Commission supported Horizon 2020 project with the objective of developing an innovative road safety Decision Support System (DSS). The DSS will enable policy-makers and stakeholders to select and implement the most appropriate strategies, measures, and cost-effective approaches to reduce casualties of all road user types and all severities.

This document is the second deliverable (4.2) of work package 4, which is dedicated to identifying and assessing road safety measures related to road users in terms of their effectiveness.

The focus of deliverable 4.2 is on the identification and assessment of countermeasures and describes the corresponding operational procedure and outcomes. Measures which intend to increase road safety of all kind of road user groups have been considered.

The following steps have been carried out:

  • Identification of human related road safety measures– creation of a taxonomy
  • Consultation of relevant stakeholders and outcomes of previous related projects for identification of most important human related measures
  • Systematic literature search and selection of relevant studies on identified key measures
  • Coding of evaluation studies
  • Analysis of key measures on basis of coded studies
  • Synopses of key measures

The core output of this task are synopses on road safety measures, which will also be available through the DSS. Within the synopses, each countermeasure (or group of measures) was analysed systematically on basis of scientific studies and is further assigned to one of four levels of effectiveness (marked with a colour code). Essential information of around 240 included studies was coded and will also be available in the database of the DSS.
Furthermore, the synopses contain theoretical background on the measures and are prepared in different sections with different levels of detail for an academic as well as a non-academic audience. These sections can be read independently.

It is important to note that quantifying the relationship between road user related countermeasures and road safety is a difficult task. Corresponding evaluation studies are not always assessing the impact of a countermeasure on the accident occurrence or severity but rather on alternative factors which, however, are proven or considered as relevant for road safety. The descriptive and qualitative context provided in the measures synopses is therefore important to be considered.

The analysed countermeasures were assessed as ‘Green’ (effective), ‘Light green’ (probably effective), ‘Grey’ (unclear results) or ‘Red’ (ineffective or counterproductive).


  • Law and enforcement – General police enforcement, speeding
  • Law and enforcement – DUI checkpoints, selective and random breath testing
  • Law and enforcement – Laws and enforcement for seatbelt wearing
  • Fitness to drive assessment and rehabilitation – Alcohol interlock
  • Fitness to drive assessment and rehabilitation – Rehabilitation
  • Awareness raising and campaigns – Seatbelt
  • Law and enforcement – License suspension

Probably effective

  • Law and enforcement – BAC limits, BAC limits for novice drivers
  • Driver training and Licensing – Formal pre-license training, graduated driver licensing and probation
  • Education and voluntary trainings and programmes – Child pedestrians
  • Awareness raising and campaigns – Aggressive and inconsiderate behaviour
  • Awareness raising and campaigns – Campaigns in general
  • Awareness raising and campaigns – Child restraint
  • Awareness raising and campaigns – Speeding and inappropriate speed
  • Awareness raising and campaigns – Driving under the influence
  • Law and enforcement –Increasing traffic fines
  • Law and enforcement – Hours of service regulations for commercial drivers
  • Law and enforcement – Demerit point systems
  • Law and enforcement – Red light cameras
  • Fitness to drive assessment and rehabilitation – Medical referrals

Unclear results

  • Law and enforcement – Laws and enforcement for mobile phone use (handheld, hands-free)
  • Education – None statutory training for novice drivers

Ineffective or counterproductive

  • Fitness to drive assessment and rehabilitation – Age-based screening of elderly drivers
European Commission, Brussels

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