The WODC Research and Documentation Centre found no effect of EMA, (Educational Measure Alcohol) on recidivism . Also for LEMA (Light Educational Measure Alcohol) no measurable effect on recidivism was found (both general traffic offence recidivism and drink-driving recidivism were studied) . Blom, Boschman and Weijters  even found a referral to LEMA to be counter-effective for novice drivers and for drivers without previous criminal drink-driving records. There was, however, a trend showing that LEMA is more effective (reducing recidivism) for drink drivers subjected to (several) criminal proceedings .
LEMA and EMA are educational measures that can be imposed by CBR (see the question Which criminal and administrative measures for driving under the influence are available?). LEMA and EMA are courses about the risks of alcohol use in traffic, and on the necessity of separating alcohol consumption and traffic participation. The LEMA course takes two afternoons or two mornings, with a week in between. The two-day EMA course is spread over seven weeks. During the course, participants share their experiences and make assignments at the course location and at home. The course concludes with a one-hour personal meeting with the trainer.
The WODC studies mentioned above, were conducted on 2013 data (LEMA) or 2015 data (EMA). Since then, the design of both measures has been changed, however. This implies that the study results cannot be translated to the current situation on a one-to-one basis.