Which design elements increase the predictability of a road?

Answer

In the Netherlands, the predictability of roads is mainly executed by using markings that differ per road category. The figure below shows the markings that are used. These markings have been applied on most roads. Making roads predictable ensures that road users always know what kind of road they are driving on, who they may encounter there and how to behave. For the predictability of roads it is not only important that there is a distinction is between categories, but that there also needs to be uniformity within categories. Median markings and separations of driving direction are features that are meaningful for the road user. In addition, the design of intersections at transitions can be helpful in making road types recognizable. Public service advertising can improve the knowledge about the meaning of markings, but in practice the driving behaviour has been found to be mainly intuitively evoked by the road design [12]. In 2004, CROW has published guidelines for the essential predictability features of the road infrastructure [13].At some stage vehicles will be equipped with electronics that make use of the essential predictability features. Then it is necessary that these essential predictability features are consistently applied everywhere [14].

More information can be found in the archived SWOV Fact sheet Recognizable road design.

Table 1. Essential predictability features further developed [15].Each road type has its own zone indication; the markings have been developed per road type and can be applied in both urban and rural areas. The physical separation of driving direction applies to through roads as well as to both regional (SW100) and national through roads (SW120). In accordance with the guidelines , the green centre marking may also be used for regional through roads.

Answer

Belangrijke verkeersveiligheidsprincipes voor tunnels zijn een zorgvuldig ontwerp van de tunnelingang en -uitgang, goede verlichting, beperking van hellingen en krappe bochten en een goede afwatering. Vluchtstroken vergroten de ruimte tot de tunnelwanden, en bieden voertuigen met pech de mogelijkheid om veilig te stoppen. Vluchtstroken worden uit overwegingen van kosteneffectiviteit in het algemeen echter niet toegepast in tunnels. Tot slot moeten discontinuïteiten (in- en uitvoegingen, samenvoegingen, splitsingen, weefvakken, rijstrookbeëindigingen en extra rijstroken) worden vermeden, zowel in de buurt van tunnels als in tunnels zelf, zeker wanneer er geen vluchtstroken zijn.

Voor meer informatie over tunnelveiligheid, zie de gearchiveerde SWOV-factsheet Verkeersveiligheid van tunnels in autosnelwegen en informatie op de website van het Steunpunt Tunnelveiligheid van Rijkswaterstaat. De Richtlijn Ontwerp Autosnelwegen (ROA, 2019) bevat ontwerprichtlijnen voor tunnels.

Part of fact sheet

Principles for safe road design

This fact sheet is currently being updated. You will find a new version here shortly.

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