SWOV researchers Jansen, Tinga, de Zwart and van der Kint coauthored the article 'Devil in the details: Systematic review of TOR signals in automated driving with a generic classification framework' in 'Transportation Research'.
Meta studies on factors contributing to take-over performance did not include the design of take-over request (TOR) signals, other than the modality at which TORs are presented. A detailed understanding of the influence of TOR design on take-over performance is therefore lacking.
To gain an overview of the level of detail with which TOR designs are reported in academic literature, by using and evaluating a novel classification framework. In this framework TORs are classified in terms of modalities, classes, and underlying attributes. Furthermore, the framework involves classification of potentially competing background signals, as well as the setting in which a study is performed.