This paper reviews the role of driver fatigue in driving safety in the European commercial road transport sector, and makes recommendations for policy changes in the areas of regulation and enforcement; hours of work and rest; and co-ordination of research. The figures for driver fatigue as a factor in accidents are higher for commercial than for non-commercial road transport but little research has been carried out in Europe into the problem. Factors influencing risk include sleep deficit, duration of and pattern of work, and driver age and experience. Current legislation is seen as ineffective and enforcement is not consistent across the European Union. Technologies to make driving safer, and better driver training, can play a part in improving the situation. A new framework for regulation is proposed, covering the duties and obligations of driver, operator and regulator; permissible hours of work and rest; a code of practice; effective enforcement; and occupational selection and training.